Zur Evolution von Sinnesorganen etc. im Sozialleben

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Zur Evolution von Sinnesorganen etc. im Sozialleben

Beitragvon Merkur » Montag 12. Juni 2017, 16:21

Tom Wenseleers & Jelle S. van Zweden (2017): Sensory and cognitive adaptations to social living in insect societies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences • June 2017
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707141114
(Sensorische und kognitive Anpassungen an das Sozialleben in Insektensozietäten)

Fig-1-Cladogram-showing-the.jpg
Cladogram Entstehung und Verlust der Sozialität...
Figure Caption:
Fig. 1. Cladogram showing the independent origins and secondary losses of sociality in the Hymenoptera (after refs. 6 and 20–24). For clarity, only a selection of the closest solitary outgroups are shown. Red, blue, and green stars represent origins of species with behaviorally defined castes, species with weak caste dimorphism but totipotent workers (still capable of mating), and species with an obligate worker caste (unable to mate). Note that some swarm-founding Polistinae evolved an obligate worker caste and that in some ants and a few bumblebee species, workers secondarily regained the ability to mate. Social species shown: Eustenogaster sp., Agelaia vicina (queen), Vespula vulgaris (queen), Formica polyctena (worker), Microstigmus comes, Augochlorella pomoniella, Lasioglossum zephyrum, Xylocopa aestuans, Ceratina smaragdula, Exoneurella tridentata (queen), Euglossa dilemma, Bombus lucorum (worker), Melipona subnitida (worker), Apis mellifera (worker), and Lasioglossum albipes (Inset). In PNAS, Wittwer et al. (7) used data from Halictini sweat bees to show that sociality is strongly associated with investment in sensorial systems linked to chemical communication, and that species that secondarily reverted back to a solitary lifestyle reduce investment in costly sensorial machinery. This is shown (Inset), for example, in the reduced density of antennal sensillae observed in females of the nonsocial vs. the social form of Lasioglossum albipes (Middle). Sensillae detect incoming chemical signals (Top), after which they are integrated in the antennal lobes (AL) and processed in the brain’s mushroom bodies (MB) (Bottom). Photographs courtesy of Zestin Soh (Eustenogaster sp., C. smaragdula, X. aestuans); Robert Matthews (M. comes); Gary McDonald (A. pomoniella); Alex Surcicǎ (L. zephyrum); Caroline Harding and Museum Victoria (E. tridentata); SamDroege (L. albipes); and T.W. (remaining species); and scanning electronmicrographs courtesy of Sarah Kocher.

Das Schema zeigt, dass innerhalb der Hymenopteren siebenmal unabhängig voneinender Sozialverhalten entstand, und dass mehrfach auch eine Rückkehr zum solitären Leben erfolgte. Verbunden damit wurden der für das soziale Verhalten notwendige Sinnesapparat (Sensillen auf den Antennen) und die chemische Kommunikation reduziert.

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